Is a sambar a kuzhambu, or a kuzhambu a sambar? Where does a Kootu fit in? And then there is Masiyal. These are the big questions that keep me awake at night.
And there is a difference between Sambar and Kuzhambu. Sambar has a base of red gram dal (toor dal), and kuzhambu does not use lentils as a base. A kuzhambu may use some toor dal ground in a spice paste, but not generally as a key ingredient.
All kuzhambus and sambars contain fenugreek which is considered the defining spice for a kuzhambu, as it is considered to go with the sour taste of tamarind.
Infinite varieties of both exist, emerging from very subtle cooking differences (eg whether the vegetables are added before the tamarind or after), on the time of the meal, on the region, the village, the time of year, the festival, the vegetable used, on the spices used, whether coconut is added, and so on.
Traditional Indian cuisine is an ancient one, eons old, with superb flavour and texture combinations, exquisitely evident in the soupy dishes of sambar and kuzhambu.
What is Sambar?
Sambar is made with toor dal, vegetables, tamarind and specific spices. It is has a thicker consistency, cooked till the dal is very mushy. The texture is very smooth, almost creamy from the mushy toor dal. (Note that toor/tuvar dal is also called red lentils or red gram dal in many recipes.)
Three things define a sambar, and it is these that make it different to other lentil based or soupy South Indian dishes.
- First a sambar is made with toor/tuvar dal.
- The second is the spice mix. The spices used in sambar will generally include fenugreek, chilli, curry leaves, black mustard seeds, turmeric, coriander powder. The spices may be added individually at different stages of cooking sambar, or may be ground and mixed together to make a sambar powder or paste, often used for convenience.
- The third is that it is made with tamarind as the souring agent
- You might like to read more on Sambar and it’s cousin, Rasam. You can do that here.
- And there a range of sambar and kuzhambu recipes here.
- There are lots of notes on how to make sambar here.
Kuzhambu – also spelt Kozhambu or Kulambu
A Kuzhambu can be thin, like a broth, or thicker like a gravy. It can contain vegetables, or not, coconut or not, and beautiful dried lentil balls (vada) or not. It is laden with spices and tamarind, and may be hot but you can control the heat according to how many chillies you include in the recipe.
Kuzhambus are meant to be eaten with rice, and perhaps a vegetable dish, some chutney and pickles.
A kuzhambu is just a type of gravy with vegetables which is not a sambar. The consistency is generally thinner than a sambar, but not very thin like a rasam. The consistency is prefereably `flowing’, not thick. A general rule is, if it doesn’t have the sambar spices then it becomes kuzhambu. It generally contains tamarind but there are exceptions, eg Mor Kuzhambu. And it usually does not contain toor dal or other dal.
In kuzhambu dishes, another characteristic is the frying of the main ingredient which gives an extra punch to the curry – it can be onion, coconut, or garlic for example.
As it is a liquid dish it is mixed with rice before eating and usually has a handful of vegetables, though not always. A separate dry vegetable preparation is an essential accompaniment.
The main ingredient – vegetable, yoghurt, vatral, tamarind etc – is predominant and hence the name of the main ingredient is added to kuzhambu. If it is predominantly tamarind based, it is puli kulambu. If it has vatral instead of veggies, it is vatral kulambu.
Poritha kuzhambu or Poricha kuzhambu is one kuzhambu that sometimes has tamarind in it, but sometimes does not. Often coconut is included in its ground spice mix and this is the most defining characteristic of a Poritha Kuzhambu. It can also contain dal – either green gram dal or toor dal.
If its a speciality dish like coconut poritha kuzhambu, then grated coconut is also fried along with the tempering ingredients and added to the kuzhambu.
Poritha Kuzhambu Recipes
Mor (also called Moar, More or Moru) kuzhambu is a special case – normally kuzhambu contains no tamarind, but there is one version of mor kuzhambu that mixes tamarind and yoghurt in equal amounts. Generally “Mor” indicates a certain sourness, and in mor kuzhambut it is provided (generally) by the yoghurt rather than tamarind except in the case mentioned.
There are at least 100 different varieties of Mor kuzhambu in Tamil Nadu. It varies from region to region.
Moar (Mor) Kuzhambu Recipes
- You can find Moar Kuzhambus recipes here.
What about Kootu?
The differences between many dishes are subtle – Kootu is also similar to sambar and kuzhambu.
Kootu (also spelt Koottu) varieties include Gothsu/Kothsu and Poritha Kootu.
Kootu is any vegetable cooked to a stew-like consistency with Mung Dal or Toor Dal, and blended with freshly ground mild spices. The amount of vegetables are more than in Kuzhambu or Sambar, up to a 1:1 ratio with the dal. The Kootu is also much thicker than Sambar, Kuzhambu or Rasam. Like Poricha Kuzhambu, Kootu often contains coconut (In fact, some places don’t distinguish between Kootu and Poricha Kuzhambu but there are small differences). Cumin is considered its defining spice. Sometimes pepper is used, but fenugreek is rarely used.
Most kootus are spiced with a coconut, jeera and red or green chillies in a paste – sometimes spices are kept to a minimum and just a coconut paste is used. Many say that traditionally it does not have a souring ingredient, but since at least the 1950’s, probably before that, lemon juice or tamarind can be included. The dal used is normally mung dal.
Some say that Koottu does not use sambar powder, but Meenakshi Ammal, the expert of Tamil Brahmin cooking, has one Koottu recipe with sambar powder.
Koottu is mixed with rice and a separate dry vegetable curry is not needed. Accompaniments are usually one or more of chapatti, thayir pachadi (raita), thuvaiyal, pickle, appalam or vadam.
Here are three common varieties of Koottu.
- Poricha Koottu: A koottu made with urad dhal and pepper is called Poritha Koottu. Urad dhal, few red chillies, some cumin and fresh coconut are ground together, sometimes with black pepper. Mung Dal and the cut vegetables are cooked separately. Then, the ground paste, cooked vegetables and moong dhal are mixed and heated.
- Araichivita Koottu: A kootu which has a powdered (freshly ground) masala in it; the word araichivita in Tamil literally translates to “the one which has been ground and poured.” The ground paste is a mixture of fried Urad Dal, cumin seeds and coconut.
- Araichivita Koottu/Sambar: The chopped vegetables and Toor Dal are cooked separately. Then, the vegetables and dal are combined with a ground paste of coconut, Bengal gram, coriander, red chilies, black pepper, and perhaps a piece of cinnamon which have been roasted. It can contain tamarind.
- Mor Koottu: Koottu with yoghurt
- Puli Koottu
- Pitlai: Uses some basic vegetables and cooked in a coconut-based gravy with specific spices that have been fried in ghee. It sits close to Poritha Kuzhambu and Poritha Kootu, but the spice mix varies from these.
- Kothsu/Gosthu : Made using roasted and mashed eggplant. When made with other vegetables it is a Baaji or Masiyal. Kothsu can contain toor dal, or not, and include tamarind (when toor dal is not included) or not (when toor dal is included). Kothsu is generally thin enough for a gravy with rice.
- Masiyal: Can be made with toor dal or a mixture of toor dal and mung dal. It can contain tamarind and always includes lots of vegetables. However, there are no ground or powdered spices, only seasoning with a few selected spices – often those spices will include fenugreek.
- Rasavangi: A dish close to Kootu and Pitlay, made with eggplant.
However, many other regional variations exist.